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What is the differences and connections between automation, artificial intelligence

2020-11-18
What is intelligence?

Starting with smartphones, the word smart has been generalized. With the emergence of smart phones, smart production, smart manufacturing, smart products, smart watches, etc. have all emerged. Today we need to re-understand the related concepts of "smart", which can be divided into three parts: automation, intelligence, and artificial intelligent.

Automation

It means using machines instead of humans to complete work tasks. In the past ten years, a large number of routine tasks performed manually in the past have been easily imitated and replaced by computers, algorithms, and software. In particular, computer algorithms, or computing, can mostly be implemented by machines. Western countries believe that today's economic era is gradually shifting from the post-industrial era to the automated industrial era. This point of view brings a new development direction, that is, Automation of Knowledge Work, which uses computers to complete complex analysis, fine judgment and innovative problem solving. Robots are devices that are automated and capable of manufacturing automation as we understand them. Their use environment is routine work that is easy to standardize and can be repeated. Automation is characterized by artificial intelligence and robots, which is reflected in the aspects of increasing productivity, reducing labor costs, improving quality, cheaper, faster, more flexible, and customizable, and has a broad development prospect. In the past ten years, with the improvement of computer performance and the decline of prices, the rise of big data, cloud computing, mobile terminals, network technology, the Internet, the Internet of things, intelligent technology, artificial intelligence technology, etc., the demand for automation has gradually reached quite high degree.

Intelligence

"Intelligent" in the context of intelligent products originally belonged to a Western term. The term is actually very interesting. "Intelligent" is interpreted as Smart. Why is it called Smart? Because Smart is an adverb, you can add the suffix ness to become a noun. It also becomes a noun because Smart can add ness, so that a conceptual framework of "intelligence" with Smart as the core can be constructed. Intelligent products, more clearly, are Smartness of Product. The "smart" products cited in our country today can be understood as Smart in the West, not the meaning covered by Intelligent. To a certain extent, it has more or less of the following functional dimensions, which can be called "Smartness of Product", such as autonomy, adaptation, self-reaction, multi-function, self-monitoring, self-repair, and self-repair, Self-operation, as well as a series of functions such as anthropomorphic interactive function, ability to cooperate with other devices Not all functions are required, and there are certain functional factors in it. We call it smart products.

 

Artificial Intelligence

Refers to allowing machines to recognize, think and learn like humans, that is, to use computers to simulate human intelligence. The typical application areas of AI today mainly include: machine theorem proof, machine translation (natural language understanding), expert system (problem solving and knowledge expression), game (tree search), pattern recognition (multimedia cognition), robots and intelligent control ( Perception and collaboration), deep learning and neural networks, optimized knowledge management, adaptive environment changes for different process requirements, human-like intelligence with human intervention, etc. Here, the difference between "optimized knowledge management" and Smart is that it has optimized functions. The anthropomorphic intelligence with human intervention refers to the ability to talk to people, execute their commands, and have thoughts and dialogues with people.

Smart System

The machines (computers), agents, sensors, and information data in the network system are all digitized, and then connected with people, devices and business processes to make them have collective consciousness and thinking.

Smart connected products

Smart connected products cannot be called "smart products", but "Smart Connected Products", usually referred to as "smart products" in Chinese, but the understanding of the European and American academic circles is different from ours. 

From the perspective of the three transformations of information technology, The first transition was in the 1940s and 1970s, when computers were more individual behaviors in product design. Computer-aided design (CAD), auxiliary manufacturing (CAM), and auxiliary production planning (MRP) have greatly increased productivity. The second time was from the 1980s to the 1990s. The Internet enabled synergy and intelligence to connect to products, changed the boundaries and characteristics of traditional products, disrupted the value chain, and provided exponential economic growth opportunities. Until the 1990s, the structure and function of the product itself had not changed. For the third time, from 2000 to now, information technology (IT) has become an integrated part of the product itself. Embedded sensors, processors, and software are connected to the product. In fact, the computer has been embedded in the product and coupled with it. Product data It is stored, analyzed and run, which dramatically improves the function and performance of the product. The potential of the third information technology-driven transformation is the largest and most significant, and it has formed more innovation effects and more productivity gains than the previous two. The design principle of smart connection to the product will change drastically, especially after the software is implanted, new design principles will be inspired, such as: software-based user customization, hardware standardization, and design enabling personalization; design cooperation is capable of continuous progress Product upgrades; the design has the ability to predict, enhance or remotely control services; systems engineering expertise, agile software development, mainly used for product hardware, electronics software operating systems and connecting components; the design should be adapted and coordinated in later stages and after-sales to allow design improvements Fast and effective. It can be seen that today's product manufacturing, sales and services have undergone major changes in the context of globalization. Advanced manufacturing must be connected with service, and product-service-innovation has become the main development direction. 

From the perspective of the development trend of innovative design, there are many jobs that cannot be completely replaced by automation. Especially the innovative design process is still difficult to be fully automated. It involves complex imagination, solving complex problems, and predicting mutations. Even a lot of empirical work cannot be replaced. For example, researchers are not yet confident enough to develop a haircutting robot that surpasses barbers. 

In short, first, in the age of global knowledge networks, service design is particularly important. Innovative design should pay attention to the manufacturing service industry, the service manufacturing industry and the non-manufacturing service industry. Second, smart connected products have greatly changed the service model. Generally speaking, the smart physical components of the product are expensive. Software intelligent connection products are diversified in product performance and cheaper in price. Product intelligence services have greatly improved product performance, strengthened market competitiveness, and gained more added value. Smart connected products apply the user's needs and the information feedback in the product to the product, and the user can get a better experience. Third, service has three key elements-Meta Value, Service Model, and Market Incentives. Technology, products, services, and customer satisfaction drive the cycle of innovation and enhance the value of more than usual products. From the perspective of business competition, serving users is more important than products. Economic value moves rapidly, and markets and brands switch frequently.

 

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